Examples of Comparative Biology

Diagrams for the peptide COX3 from several species are shown here.
It is unclear for the present as to whether these diagrams should be identical to each other.

Examples of non-synonymous mutations are:
G9300A - giving 'A32T'  (defines Haplogroups T1a2 & T2b6 etc.)
G9477A - giving 'V91I'  (defines Haplogroup U5 etc.)
A9670G - giving 'N155S' (defines Haplogroup G4 etc.)
T9682C - giving 'M159T' (defines haplogroup U5b2a2a etc.)

COX3  Mammal - Human NC_012920
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Egyptian Rousette  Mammal - Bat - NC_007393
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Koala  Marsupial - Koala - NC_008133
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Amino acid sequences for peptide COX3:-

                               1         2         3         4         5         6         7         8         9       100         1         2         3         4         5         6         7         8         9       200         1         2         3         4         5         6
Mammals:
Human               - MTHQSHAYHMVKPSPWPLTGALSALLMTSGLAMWFHFHSMTLLMLGLLTNTLTMYQWWRDVTRESTYQGHHTPPVQKGLRYGMILFITSEVFFFAGFFWAFYHSSLAPTPQLGGHWPPTGITPLNPLEVPLLNTSVLLASGVSITWAHHSLMENNRNQMIQALLITILLGLYFTLLQASEYFESPFTISDGIYGSTFFVATGFHGLHVIIGSTFLTICFIRQLMFHFTSKHHFGFEAAAWYWHFVDVVWLFLYVSIYWWGS     - Human
'Altai'             - MTHQSHAYHMVKPSPWPLTGALSALLMTSGLTMWFHFHSTTLLMLGLLTNTLTMYQWWRDVTRESTYQGHHTPPVQKGLRYGMILFITSEVFFFAGFFWAFYHSSLAPTPQLGGHWPPTGITPLNPLEVPLLNTSVLLASGVSITWAHHSLMENNRNQMIQALLITILLGLYFTLLQASEYFESPFTISDGIYGSTFFVATGFHGLHVIIGSTFLTICFIRQLMFHFTSKHHFGFEAAAWYWHFVDVVWLFLYISIYWWGS     - 'Altai'
Chimp               - MTHQSHAYHMVKPSPWPLTGALSALLMTSGLAMWFHFYSTTLLTLGLLTNTLTMYQWWRDVMREGTYQGHHTPPVQKGLRYGMILFITSEVFFFAGFFWAFYHSSLAPTPQLGGHWPPTGITPLNPLEVPLLNTSVLLASGVSITWAHHSLMENNRNQMIQALLITILLGLYFTLLQASEYFESPFTISDGIYGSTFFVATGFHGLHVIIGSTFLTICLIRQLMFHFTSKHHFGFQAAAWYWHFVDVVWLFLYVSIYWWGS     - Chimp
Cattle              - MTHQTHAYHMVNPSPWPLTGALSALLMTSGLTMWFHFNSMTLLMIGLTTNMLTMYQWWRDVIRESTFQGHHTPAVQKGLRYGMILFIISEVLFFTGFFWAFYHSSLAPTPELGGCWPPTGIHPLNPLEVPLLNTSVLLASGVSITWAHHSLMEGDRKHMLQALFITITLGVYFTLLQASEYYEAPFTISDGVYGSTFFVATGFHGLHVIIGSTFLIVCFFRQLKFHFTSNHHFGFEAAAWYWHFVDVVWLFLYVSIYWWG      - Cattle
Bowhead Whale       - MTHQTHSYHMVNPSPWPLTGALSALLMTSGLIMWFHFNSMILLTLGLLTNILTMYQWWRDIIRESTFQGHHTPTVQKGLRYGMILFIISEVLFFTGFFWAFYHSSLAPTPELGGCWPPTGIHPLNPLEVPLLNTSVLLASGVSITWAHHSLMEGNRKHMLQALFITIALGLYFTLLQASEYYEAPFTISDGIYGSTFFVATGFHGLHVIIGSTFLIVCFLRQMKFHFTSNHHFGFEAAAWYWHFVDVVWLFLYVSIYWWGS     - Bowhead Whale
Killer Whale        - MTHQTHSYHMVNPSPWPLTGALSAFLMTSGLIMWFHFNSMILLTLSFLTNTLTMYQWWRDIIRESTFQGHHTPTVQKGLRYGMVLFILSEVLFFTGFFWAFYHSSLAPTPELGGSWPPTGIHPLNPLELPLLNTSVLLASGVSITWAHHSLMEGDRKHVLQALLITIMLGFYFTLLQVSEYYEAPFTISDGIYGSTFFVTTGFHGLHVIIGSTFLIICFMRQMMFHFTSGHHFGFEAAAWYWHFVDVVWLFLYVSIYWWGS     - Killer Whale
Egyptian Rousette   - MTHQTHAYHMVNPSPWPLTGALSALLLTSGLVMWFHFNSTLLLMLGLSANMLTMYQWWRDIVRESTFQGHHTPIVQKGLRYGMILFILSEVFFFIGFFWAFYHSSLAPTPELGGCWPPTGIHPLNPLEVPLLNTSVLLASGVSITWAHHSLMEGNRKSMLQALLITILLGAYFTLLQASEYYETPFTIADGVYGSTFFMATGFHGLHVIIGSTFLLVCFIRQLKFHFTSKHHFGFEAAAWYWHFVDVVWLFLYVSIYWWGS     - Egyptian Rousette Bat
European Hedgehog   - MTHQMHAYHMVNPSPWPLTGALSALLITSGLMMWFHSNSIFLLVLGLITNILTMFQWWRDIIREGTFQGHHTPIVQKGLRYGMILFIISEVLFFTGFFWAFYHSSLVPTTELGGYWPPAGIKPLNPLEVPLLNTAVLLASGVSVTWAHHSILEKDRINAIQALIVTISLGLYFTLLQIMEYYESPFTIADSVYGSTFFMATGFHGFHVIIGSSFLFICLMRQLKFHFTSNHHFGFEAAAWYWHFVDVVWLFLYVSIYWWGS     - European Hedgehog
Giant Panda         - MIHQTHAYHMVNPSPWPLTGALSALLMTSGLIMWFHFNSVYLLMLGLTTNMLTMYQWWRDIVRESTFQGHHTPIVQKGLRYGMVLFIVSEVFFFAGFFWAFYHSSLAPTPELGACWPPTGIIPLNPLEVPLLNTSVLLASGVSITWAHHSLMEGDRKHMLQALFITISLGVYFTLLQASEYYETSFTISDGVYGSTFFMATGFHGLHVIIGSTFLTVCFLRQLHFHFTSNHHFGFEAAAWYWHFVDVVWLFLYVSIYWWGS     - Giant Panda
Wallaroo            - MTHQTHAYHMVNPSPWPLTGALSALLLTSGLIMWFHFNSFLLVIIGLTCMLLTMYQWWRDIVREGTFQGHHTPVVQKGLRYGMVLFIVSEVFFFLGFFWAFYHSSLAPTPELGGCWPPTGIHPLNPLEVPLLNTSILLASGVSITWAHHSLMEGNRKQMIQALSITILLGIYFTILQASEYYESSFTISDGVYGSTFFVATGFHGLHVIIGTTFLIVCLLRQFNFHFTSTHHFGFEAAAWYWHFVDVVWLFLYVSIYWWGS     - Wallaroo
Koala               - MTHQTHAYHMVNPSPWPLTGALSALLLTSGLTMWFHSNSLLLLMTGLTCMLLTMYQWWRDIIREGTFQGHHTPVVQKNLRYGMILFILSEAFFFLGFFWAFYHSSLAPTPEIGSCWPPTGIHPLDPFEIPLLNTSILLASGVSITWAHHSLMEGHRNHTIQALSITILLGLYFTMLQAMEYYEASFTMSDGIYGSTFFMSTGFHGLHVIIGSTFLTVCLMRQLKYHFTTTHHLGFEAAAWYWHFVDVVWLFLYVSIYWWGS     - Koala
Australian Echidna  - MTHQTHAYHMVNPSPWPLTGALSALLLTSGLMMWFHFNNPTLLVLGLLTNLISSYQWWRDIVREGTYQGHHTKVVQKGLRYGMVLFIISEVFFFLGFFWAFYHSSLAPTPELGGCWPPTGISPLNPLEVPLLNTSILLASGVSITWSHHSLMEGNRKQMIQALMITIALGLYFTALQAMEYYESSFTISDGVYGSTFFVATGFHGLHVIIGTTFLITCLLRQLLYHFTSNHHFGFEAAAWYWHFVDVVWLFLYVSIYWWGS     - Australian Echidna

100 miliion years ago:
Non-mammals:
Zebrafish           - M AHQAHAYHMVDPSPWPLTGAVAALLMSSGLAIWFHLHSMTLIVLGMILLILTMIQWWRDIIREGTFQGHHTPPVQKGLRYGMILFITSEVFFFLGFFWAFYHSSLAPTPELGGCWPPTGLTTLDPFEVPLLNTAVLLASGVTVTWAHHSLMEGERKQAIQSLALTILLGLYFTALQAMEYYEAPFTIADGVYGSTFFVATGFHGLHVIIGSTFLAVCLLRQVLFHFTSDHHFGFEAAAWYWHFVDVVWLFLYVSIYWWGS     - Zebrafish
Drosophila alstonvl - MSTHSNHPFHLVDYSPWPLTGAIGAMTTVSGMVKWFHQYDISLFVLGNIITILTVYQWWRDVSREGTYQGLHTYAVTIGLRWGMILFILSEVLFFVSFFWAFFHSSLSPAIELGASWPPMGIISFNPFQIPLLNTAILLASGVTVTWAHHSLMENNHSQTTQGLFFTVLLGIYFTILQAYEYIEAPFTIADSIYGSTFFMATGFHGIHVLIGTTFLLVCLLRHLNNHFSKNHHFGFEAAAWYWHFVDVVWLFLYITIYWWGG     - Drosophila alstonvl
Drosophila brownsvl - MSTHSNHPFHLVDYSPWPLTGAIGAMTTVSGMVKWFHQYDISLFVLGNIITILTVYQWWRDVSREGTYQGLHTYAVTIGLRWGMILFILSEVLFFVSFFWAFFHSSLSPAIELGASWPPMGIISFNPFQIPLLNTAILLASGVTVTWAHHSLMENNHSQTTQGLFFTVLLGIYFTILQAYEYIEAPFTIADSIYGSTFFMATGFHGIHVLIGTTFLLVCLLRHLNNHFSKNHHFGFEAAAWYWHFVDVVWLFLYITIYWWGG     - Drosophila brownsvl
Bryozoan            - M      PFHLVSYSPWPLLASAGAMFLLSGLGAWFHGQSPALMYIGLLTVLSVSFNWWRDVTSESTYSGYHTSSVTHGLRLGMLLFILSEVCFFFAFFWAFFHSSLSPTPALGGVWPPSGVHPLSATGVPLLNTVILLSSGVTITWCHHSLTSGDTPSAVKSLWITCNLGGYFTYLQATEYLETSFSITDSVFGSCFFVATGFHGLHVLIGTTALLVCLQRLRNIHFSSSHHVGFEASCWYWHFVDVVWLFLFMTIYLWGS     - Bryozoan

Comparative phylogeny:

NC_012920 Homo sapiens              Human              Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
NC_001643 Pan troglodytes           Chimp              Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Pan
NC_006853 Bos taurus                Cattle             Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Laurasiatheria; Cetartiodactyla; Ruminantia; Pecora; Bovidae; Bovinae; Bos
NC_005268 Balaena mysticetus        Bowhead Whale      Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Laurasiatheria; Cetartiodactyla; Cetacea; Mysticeti; Balaenidae; Balaena
NC_014682 Orcinus orca              Killer Whale       Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Laurasiatheria; Cetartiodactyla; Cetacea; Odontoceti; Delphinidae; Orcinus
NC_007393 Rousettus aegyptiacus     Egyptian Rousette  Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Laurasiatheria; Chiroptera; Megachiroptera; Pteropodidae; Pteropodinae; Rousettus
NC_002080 Erinaceus europaeus       European Hedgehog  Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Laurasiatheria; Insectivora; Erinaceidae; Erinaceinae; Erinaceus
NC_009492 Ailuropoda melanoleuca    Giant Panda        Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Laurasiatheria; Carnivora; Caniformia; Ursidae; Ailuropoda
NC_001794 Macropus robustus         Wallaroo           Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Metatheria; Diprotodontia; Macropodidae; Macropus
NC_008133 Phascolarctos cinereus    Koala              Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Metatheria; Diprotodontia; Phascolarctidae; Phascolarctos
NC_003321 Tachyglossus aculeatus    Australian Echidna Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Monotremata; Tachyglossidae; Tachyglossus
NC_002333 Danio rerio               Zebrafish          Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Actinopterygii; Neopterygii; Teleostei; Ostariophysi; Cypriniformes; Cyprinidae; Danio
NC_014764 Protopterus aethiopicus   Marbled Lungfish   Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Dipnoi; Lepidosireniformes; Protopteridae; Protopterus
NC_009736 Egretta eulophotes        Chinese Egret      Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Archosauria; Dinosauria; Saurischia; Theropoda; Coelurosauria; Aves; Neognathae; Ciconiiformes; Ardeidae; Egretta
NC_006403 Hyla chinensis            Chinese Toad       Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Amphibia; Batrachia; Anura; Neobatrachia; Hyloidea; Hylidae; Hylinae; Hylini; Hyla
NC_001626 Petromyzon marinus        Sea Lamprey        Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Hyperoartia; Petromyzontiformes; Petromyzontidae; Petromyzon
NC_004447 Ciona intestinalis        Sea squirt         Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Tunicata; Ascidiacea; Enterogona; Phlebobranchia; Cionidae; Ciona
NC_001912 Branchiostoma lanceolatum Amphioxus          Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Cephalochordata; Branchiostomidae; Branchiostoma. 
NC_012616 Apostichopus japonicus    Jap. Sea Cucumber  Eukaryota; Metazoa; Echinodermata; Eleutherozoa; Echinozoa; Holothuroidea; Aspidochirotacea; Aspidochirotida; Stichopodidae; Apostichopus
NC_002546 Fasciola hepatica         Liver Fluke        Eukaryota; Metazoa; Platyhelminthes; Trematoda; Digenea; Echinostomida; Echinostomata; Echinostomatoidea; Fasciolidae; Fasciola
NC_010220 Biomphalaria tenagophila  Snail              Eukaryota; Metazoa; Mollusca; Gastropoda; Pulmonata; Basommatophora; Lymnaeoidea; Planorbidae; Biomphalaria
NC_001566 Apis mellifera ligustica  Honey Bee          Eukaryota; Metazoa; Arthropoda; Hexapoda; Insecta; Pterygota; Neoptera; Endopterygota; Hymenoptera; Apocrita; Aculeata; Apoidea; Apidae; Apis
NC_014587 Hipparchia autonoe        Russian Grayling   Eukaryota; Metazoa; Arthropoda; Hexapoda; Insecta; Pterygota; Neoptera; Endopterygota; Lepidoptera; Glossata; Ditrysia; Papilionoidea; Nymphalidae; Satyrinae; Satyrini; Satyrina; Hipparchia
NC_008192 Flustrellidra hispida     Bryozoan           Eukaryota; Metazoa; Bryozoa; Gymnolaemata; Ctenostomata; Flustrellidridae; Flustrellidra