Examples of Comparative Biology

Diagrams for the peptide COX2 from several species are shown here.
It is unclear for the present as to whether these diagrams should be identical to each other.

Examples of non-synonymous mutations are:
G7664A - giving 'A27T'  (defines Haplogroup B4ba1a1 etc.)
A7673G - giving 'I30V'  (defines Haplogroup M13a1a etc.)
G7805A - giving 'V74I'  (defines Haplogroup L1c3b2, U6a etc.)
G8027A - giving 'A148T' (defines Haplogroup L1c etc.)
A8108G - giving 'I175V' (defines Haplogroup M11 etc.)


Full list   February 2011

Mutation Freq.       Change

7598A  1.8%   146    A5T
7661T  0.01%    1    H26Y
7664A  0.5%    43    A27T
7673G  0.3%    26    I30V
7679C  0.1%     8    F32L
7691C  0.03%    3    F36L
7692C  0.1%     8    F36S
7697A  1.2%    97    V38I
7706A  0.02%    2    A41T
7718G  0.01%    1    T45A
7746G  0.04%    4    N54S
7755C  0.01%    1    D57A
7775A  0.1%     8    V64I
7785C  0.1%     8    I67T
7793T  0.02%    2    A70S
7805A  1.2%   103    V74I
7830A  0.07%    6    R82H
7844G  0.2%    17    T87A
7853A  1.6%   131    V90I
7859A  0.4%    31    D92N
7941G  0.01%    1    N119S
7977C  0.01%    1    G131A
8026T  0.01%    1    E147D
8027A  4%     339    A148T
8075A  0.03%    3    A164T
8084G  0.04%    4    T167A
8108G  0.3%    25    I175V
8130T  0.01%    1    T182I
8237G  0.03%    3    I218V
8252G  0.01%    1    P223A
8255A  0.01%    1    V224M

COX2  Mammal - Human NC_012920
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Koala  Marsupial - Koala - NC_008133
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Honey Bee  Arthropoda - Honey Bee - NC_001566
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Bryozoan  Bryozoan - NC_008192
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Amino acid sequences for peptide COX2:-

                              1         2         3         4         5         6         7         8         9       100         1         2         3         4         5         6         7         8         9       200         1         2
Mammals:
Human              - MAHAAQVGLQDATSPIMEELITFHDHALMIIFLICFLVLYALFLTLTTKLTNTNISDAQEMETVWTILPAIILVLIALPSLRILYMTDEVNDPSLTIKSIGHQWYWTYEYTDYGGLIFNSYMLPPLFLEPGDLRLLDVDNRVVLPIEAPIRMMITSQDVLHSWAVPTLGLKTDAIPGRLNQTTFTATRPGVYYGQCSEICGANHSFMPIVLELIPLKIFEMGPVFTL     - Human
Denisovan          - MAHAAQVGLQDATSPIMEELIIFHDHTLMIIFLICFLVLYALFLTLTTKLTNTNISDAQEMETVWTILPAIILVLIALPSLRILYMTDEVNDPSFTIKSIGHQWYWTYEYTDYGGLIFNSYMLPPLFLEPGDLRLLDVDNRVVLPVEAPIRMMITSQDVLHSWAVPTLGLKTDAIPGRLNQTTFTATRPGVYYGQCSEICGANHSFMPIVLELIPLKIFEMGPVFTL
Chimp              - MAHAAQVGLQDATSPIMEELIIFHDHALMIIFLICFLVLYALFLTLTTKLTNTSISDAQEMETVWTILPAIILVLIALPSLRILYMTDEVNDPSFTIKSIGHQWYWTYEYTDYGGLIFNSYMLPPLFLEPGDLRLLDVDNRVVLPVEAPVRMMITSQDVLHSWAVPTLGLKTDAIPGRLNQTTFTATRPGVYYGQCSEICGANHSFMPIVLELIPLKIFEMGPVFTL     - Chimp
Cattle             - MAYPMQLGFQDATSPIMEELLHFHDHTLMIVFLISSLVLYIISLMLTTKLTHTSTMDAQEVETIWTILPAIILILIALPSLRILYMMDEINNPSLTVKTMGHQWYWSYEYTDYEDLSFDSYMIPTSELKPGELRLLEVDNRVVLPMEMTIRMLVSSEDVLHSWAVPSLGLKTDAIPGRLNQTTLMSSRPGLYYGQCSEICGSNHSFMPIVLELVPLKYFEKWSASML     - Cattle
Bowhead Whale      - MAYPLQLGFQDATSPIMEELLHFHDHTLMIVFLISSLVLYIITLMLTTKLTHTSTMDAQEVETIWTILPAIILILIALPSLRILYMMDEVNNPSLTVKTMGHQWYWSYEYTDYEDLNFDSYMIPTSDLKPGELRLLEVDNRVVLPMEMTIRMLVSSEDVLHSWAVPSLGLKTDAIPGRLNQTTLMSTRPGLFYGQCSEICGSNHSFMPIVLELVPLENFEKWSTSML     - Bowhead Whale
Killer Whale       - MAYPFQLGLQDAASPVMEELLQFHDHALMIIFLISSLVLYIITLMLTTKLTHTSTMNAQEVETIWTILPAAILIMIALPSLRILYMMDEINNPSLTVKTMGHQWYWSYEYTDYEDLNFDSYMIPTPDLKPGELRLLEVDNRMVLPLQMTIRMLVSSEDVLHSWAIPSLGLKTDAIPGRLNQTTLTSTRPGLFYGQCSEVCGSNHSFMPIVLELVPLESFEKWSASML     - Killer Whale
Egyptian Rousette  - MAYPFQLGFQDATSPIMEELLHFHDHALMIVFLISSLVLYLISVMLTTSLTHTSTMDAQEVETIWTILPAMILIMIALPSLRILYMMDEINNPYLTVKTMGHQWYWSYEYTDYEDLTFDSYMIPTQDLKPGELRLLEVDNRVVLPMELTIRMLISSEDVLHSWAVPSLGLKTDAIPGRLNQTTLLSTRPGLYYGQCSEICGSNHSFMPIVLELVPLKYFEKWSSSML     - Egyptian Rousette
European Hedgehog  - MPYPLELGLQDASSPIMEELLYFHDHTLMIVFLISSLVLYIISAMLTTNLMHTSTVDAQEIETVWTILPAIILILIALPSLRILYLMDEMNNPSLTMKTLGHQWYWSYEYSDFEDLSLDSYMIPTSDLNLGMFRLLEVDNRIILPTNTTTRILVSSEDVLHSWAIPSLGIKTDAIPGRLNQATLMITRPGVYYGQCSEICGANHSFMPITIEAVPLTYFEKWTSSIT     - European Hedgehog
Giant Panda        - MAHPFQTGLQDATSPIMEELLHFHDHTLMIVFLISSLVLYIISIMLTTKLTHTNTMDAQEVETVWTILPAIILIMIALPSLRILYMMDEINNPSLTVKTMGHQWYWSYEYTDYEDLSFDSYMTPTQELKPGELRLLEVDNRVVLPMEMTIRMLISSEDVLHSWAVPSLGLKTDAIPGRLNQTTLMAMRPGLYYGQCSEICGSNHSFMPIVLEMVPLSYFEKWSASML     - Giant Panda
Wallaroo           - MPYPMQLGFQDATSPIMEELTYFHDHTLMIVFLISSLVLYIIILMLTTKLTHTSTMDAQEVETIWTILPAVILVLIALPSLRILYMMDEIYNPYLTIKAMGHQWYWSYEYTDYEDLTFDSYMIPTQELTPGQLRLLEVDNRVVLPMELPIRVLISSEDVIHAWTVPSLGLKADAIPGRLNQATLTSTRPGVYYGQCSEICGSNHSFMPIVLEMTTLKYFEKWSSMMQ     - Wallaroo
Koala              - MPYPMQLGFQDAASPIMEELVYFHDHTLMIVFLISSLILYTIMLMLTTKLTHTNTINAQEVETMWTIIPAVILVFIALPSLRILYMMDEIHNPYLTVKAIGHQWYWSYEYTDYEDLTFDSYMIPTQDLSPGQFRLLETDNRMVLPMDLPIRVLISSEDVLHAWTLPSLGVKADAIPGRLNQITLTSTRPGVFYGQCSEICGSNHSFMPIVLEMTTLKYFEKWSSTML     - Koala
Australian Echidna - MAYPLQLGFQDATSPIMEELLHFHDHTLMIVFLISSLVLYVISTMLTTKLTHTNTMDAQEVETIWTILPAIILILIALPSLRILYMMDEINNPNLTIKTMGHQWYWSYEYSDYEDLSFDSYMIPTQDLTTGQMRLLEVDNHLVMPIELPIRMLISSEDVLHSWALPSMGLKTDAIPGRLNQATITSTRPGLFYGQCSEICGSNHSFMPIVLEMVPLKHFENWSSSMMSTS  - Australian Echidna

Non-mamals:
Zebrafish          - MAHPAQLGFQDAASPVMEELLCFHDHALMIVFLISTLVLYIIIAMVSTKLTNKFILDSQEIEIVWTVLPAIILILIALPSLRILYLMDEINDPHVTIKAVGHQWYWSYEYTDYENLEFDSYMVPTQDLTPGGFRLLETDHRMVVPKESPIRILVSAEDVLHSWAVPSLGIKMDAVPGRLNQTAFIVSRPGVFYGQCSEICGANHSFMPIVVEAVPLEFFENWSSAMLEDA                      - Zebrafish
Marbled Lungfish   - MAHPSQLGLQDAASPVMEELIHFHDHALMIVFLISTLVLYIIVAMVSTKFTNKFILDSQEIEIVWTILPAVILIMIALPSLRILYLMDEINDPHLTVKAVGHQWYWSYEYSDYEALSFDSYMIPTQDLSPGQFRLLETDYRMVVPMESPIRVLITADDVIHSWAVPALGIKMDAVPGRLNQASFITARPGMFYGQCSEICGANHSFMPIVVEAVPLQHFESWSSSMLEKA                      - Marbled Lungfish
Chinese Egret      - MANHSQLGFQDASSPIMEELVEFHDHALMVALAICSLVLYLLALMLMEKLSSNTVDAQEVELIWTILPAIVLILLALPSLQILYMMDEIDEPDLTLKAIGHQWYWTYEYTDFKDLTFDSYMIPTAELPQGHFRLLEVDHRVVIPMESLIRIIITASDVLHSWAIPTLGVKTDAIPGRLNQTSFITTRPGIFYGQCSEICGANHSYMPIVVESAPLSHFENWSSLMSS                         - Chinese Egret
Sea Lamprey        - MAQQAQLGLQDAASPIMEELIHFHDHTLTVVFLISVLIFYLIIVMVTTTFMNKHSLDSQEVEIVWTVMPAIVLITIALPSLRILYLTDEISNPHLTIKAVGHQWYWSYEYTDYHQMEFDSYMIPTNELEPGGIRLLDVDHRIVVPMESPVRMLITSEDVIHSWTIPSLGTKVDAVPGRLNQATFITTRPGLFFGQCSEICGANHSFMPIALEAVPLSNFENWTTKVLAS                       - Sea Lamprey
Sea Squirt         - MYPYSFIQLTDSNTFFGHEIVLFHDFSLASLVFILTAVLLMSKALKKKKYVVLAYKGSNMLEFLWTFFPVFILISIGLPSLYLMYLLEGSFKGDLTFKVVGHQWYWSYEGGDFNDFDMSSYMVPSEDLQEGQFRLLEVDNSMVLPYSTNIRLMITSYDVIHSWTLPSLKMKVDAVPGRLNTMNIFSFQPGSFYGQCSEICGLLHSFMPIHVEFVNWETFLNHVTEESFN                       - Sea Squirt
Amphioxus          - MATPAQLGLMDAASPVMEEMIYFHDHVMLVLILITCLIFYSMLVLISSKYIYRFLTDGHVIETVWTVIPAIILVVVALPSLKLLYLTDELDNPQLTIKSVGHQWYWSYEYTDYYDIEFDSYMLPLGDLSKGDARLLEVDNRVVLPVDTSVRVLVTAADVIHSWTVPSLGLKMDAVPGRLNQLALQCSRVGTFYGQCSEICGANHSFMPIVIEAVPVEVFEGWCDMMLDEESLGSLNMKR             -Amphioxus
Brown Hydra        - MKNLIIFISFFICLLFNNIFYEDISESNQLSFQESASSCGNNLIFFHDDIMFYIVIILVLVGWLLFSVINNKNYNKFLLENNFIEIVWTLIPAIILIIIAIPSLFLLYSIDENVEPSLTVKIVGHQWYWSYEYSNFSPNIEFDSYMIPTIDLNQGDFRLLETDNDLVLPVNTKIKLIVSSADVIHCWTVPSLGVKVDAIPGRLNQLNFIINRPGRFFGQCSELCGLNHSFMPISIYSVSQEKFINWSINKT - Brown Hydra
Honey Bee          - MSTWFMFMFQESNSYYADNLISFHNMVMMIIIMISTLTVYIILDLFMNKFSNLFLLKNHNIEIIWTIIPIIILLIICFPSLKILYLIDEIVNPFFSIKSIGHQWYWSYEYPEFNNIEFDSYMLNYNNLNQFRLLETDNRMVIPMKIPLRLITTSTDVIHSWTVPSLGIKVDAVPGRINQLNLISKRPGIFFGQCSEICGMNHSFMPIMIESTSFQYFLNWVNKQI                           - Honey bee
Bryozoan           - MISMWSQMLFSDHMGLWSFFLNRFHDYTCALLGGLLVFIGVVSASKVSNQHTTDKSLSLAPEIVWTVAPVVMLLLVCIPSLKLLYMMDRTEPFLTVKIMGRQWYWNYALGDMDFDSYMSNSNGYRLLDTDHRLVLPVMVNVRGLVTGGDVIHSWSVPVLAVKADAVPGRLNQLSMFSMNVGVAYGQCSEICGANHSFMPISVEMVSLVHFCDWFSVGVSDEF                              - Bryozoan

Comparative phylogeny:

NC_012920 Homo sapiens              Human              Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
NC_001643 Pan troglodytes           Chimp              Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Pan
NC_006853 Bos taurus                Cattle             Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Laurasiatheria; Cetartiodactyla; Ruminantia; Pecora; Bovidae; Bovinae; Bos
NC_005268 Balaena mysticetus        Bowhead Whale      Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Laurasiatheria; Cetartiodactyla; Cetacea; Mysticeti; Balaenidae; Balaena
NC_014682 Orcinus orca              Killer Whale       Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Laurasiatheria; Cetartiodactyla; Cetacea; Odontoceti; Delphinidae; Orcinus
NC_007393 Rousettus aegyptiacus     Egyptian Rousette  Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Laurasiatheria; Chiroptera; Megachiroptera; Pteropodidae; Pteropodinae; Rousettus
NC_002080 Erinaceus europaeus       European Hedgehog  Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Laurasiatheria; Insectivora; Erinaceidae; Erinaceinae; Erinaceus
NC_009492 Ailuropoda melanoleuca    Giant Panda        Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Laurasiatheria; Carnivora; Caniformia; Ursidae; Ailuropoda
NC_001794 Macropus robustus         Wallaroo           Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Metatheria; Diprotodontia; Macropodidae; Macropus
NC_008133 Phascolarctos cinereus    Koala              Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Metatheria; Diprotodontia; Phascolarctidae; Phascolarctos
NC_003321 Tachyglossus aculeatus    Australian Echidna Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Monotremata; Tachyglossidae; Tachyglossus
NC_002333 Danio rerio               Zebrafish          Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Actinopterygii; Neopterygii; Teleostei; Ostariophysi; Cypriniformes; Cyprinidae; Danio
NC_014764 Protopterus aethiopicus   Marbled Lungfish   Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Dipnoi; Lepidosireniformes; Protopteridae; Protopterus
NC_009736 Egretta eulophotes        Chinese Egret      Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Archosauria; Dinosauria; Saurischia; Theropoda; Coelurosauria; Aves; Neognathae; Ciconiiformes; Ardeidae; Egretta
NC_006403 Hyla chinensis            Chinese Toad       Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Amphibia; Batrachia; Anura; Neobatrachia; Hyloidea; Hylidae; Hylinae; Hylini; Hyla
NC_001626 Petromyzon marinus        Sea Lamprey        Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Hyperoartia; Petromyzontiformes; Petromyzontidae; Petromyzon
NC_004447 Ciona intestinalis        Sea squirt         Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Tunicata; Ascidiacea; Enterogona; Phlebobranchia; Cionidae; Ciona
NC_001912 Branchiostoma lanceolatum Amphioxus          Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Cephalochordata; Branchiostomidae; Branchiostoma. 
NC_010214 Hydra oligactis           Brown Hydra        Eukaryota; Metazoa; Cnidaria; Hydrozoa; Hydroida; Anthomedusae; Hydridae; Hydra.
NC_012616 Apostichopus japonicus    Jap. Sea Cucumber  Eukaryota; Metazoa; Echinodermata; Eleutherozoa; Echinozoa; Holothuroidea; Aspidochirotacea; Aspidochirotida; Stichopodidae; Apostichopus
NC_002546 Fasciola hepatica         Liver Fluke        Eukaryota; Metazoa; Platyhelminthes; Trematoda; Digenea; Echinostomida; Echinostomata; Echinostomatoidea; Fasciolidae; Fasciola
NC_010220 Biomphalaria tenagophila  Snail              Eukaryota; Metazoa; Mollusca; Gastropoda; Pulmonata; Basommatophora; Lymnaeoidea; Planorbidae; Biomphalaria
NC_001566 Apis mellifera ligustica  Honey Bee          Eukaryota; Metazoa; Arthropoda; Hexapoda; Insecta; Pterygota; Neoptera; Endopterygota; Hymenoptera; Apocrita; Aculeata; Apoidea; Apidae; Apis
NC_014587 Hipparchia autonoe        Russian Grayling   Eukaryota; Metazoa; Arthropoda; Hexapoda; Insecta; Pterygota; Neoptera; Endopterygota; Lepidoptera; Glossata; Ditrysia; Papilionoidea; Nymphalidae; Satyrinae; Satyrini; Satyrina; Hipparchia
NC_008192 Flustrellidra hispida     Bryozoan           Eukaryota; Metazoa; Bryozoa; Gymnolaemata; Ctenostomata; Flustrellidridae; Flustrellidra