Examples of Comparative Biology

Diagrams for the peptide ATP6 from several species are shown here.
The structure of the peptide appears identical in all mammals.

The first ATP6 mutation reported, a T8993G resulting in the substitution of a highly
conserved leucine to arginine ('L156R'), is the most frequent mutation associated with
NARP/MILS. The T8993C and T9176G mutations, which replace conserved leucines of
ATP6 with proline ('L156P') and arginine ('L217R'), respectively, have also been described
in NARP/MILS pedigrees.

However, most non-synonymous mutations are presumed to be harmless.
Including for example:

C8578T - giving 'P18S'  (defines Haplogroup H36a etc.)
G8584A - giving 'A20T'  (defines Haplogroup C etc.)
T8594C - giving 'I23T'  (defines Haplogroup R5 etc.)
T8618C - giving 'I31T'  (defines Haplogroup L3d etc.)
C8684T - giving 'T53I'  (defines Haplogroup M8a etc.)
A8701G - giving 'T59A'  (defines Haplogroup M etc.)
G8764A - giving 'A80T'  (defines Haplogroup D4f1 etc.)
C8794T - giving 'H90Y'  (defines Haplogroup A etc.)
A8860G - giving 'T112A' {defines Haplogroup H2a2 etc.)
A8869G - giving 'M115V' (defines Haplogroup V1 etc.)
G9053A - giving 'S176N' (defines Haplogroup I1a1a etc.)
G9055A - giving 'A177T' (defines Haplogroup U8b etc.)

ATP6  Mammal - Human NC_012920
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Cattle  Mammal - Cattle - NC_006853
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Egyptian Rousette  Mammal - Egyptian Rousette - NC_007393
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Koala  Marsupial - Koala - NC_008133
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Amino acid sequences for peptide ATP6:-

                              1         2         3         4         5         6         7         8         9         0         1         2         3         4         5         6         7         8         9       200         1         2
Mammals:
Human              - MNENLFASFIAPTILGLPAAVLIILFPPLLIPTSKYLINNRLITTQQWLIKLTSKQMMTMHNTKGRTWSLMLVSLIIFIATTNLLGLLPHSFTPTTQLSMNLAMAIPLWAGTVIMGFRSKIKNALAHFLPQGTPTPLIPMLVIIETISLLIQPMALAVRLTANITAGHLLMHLIGSATLAMSTINLPSTLIIFTILILLTILEIAVALIQAYVFTLLVSLYLHDNT        - Human
Chimp              - MNENLFASFAAPTILGLPAAVLIILFPPLLVPTSKHLINNRLITTQQWLIQLTSKQMMTMHSTKGRTWSLMLVSLIIFITTTNLLGLLPHSFTPTTQLSMNLAMAIPLWAGAVVMGFRFKTKNALAHFLPQGTPTPLIPMLVIIETISLLIQPMALAVRLTANITAGHLLMHLIGSATLALSTINLPYALIIFTILILLTILEIAVALIQAYVFTLLVSLYLHDNT        - Chimp
Cattle             - MNENLFTSFITPVILGLPLVTLIVLFPSLLFPTSNRLVSNRFVTLQQWMLQLVSKQMMSIHNSKGQTWTLMLMSLILFIGSTNLLGLLPHSFTPTTQLSMNLGMAIPLWAGAVITGFRNKTKASLAHFLPQGTPTPLIPMLVIIETISLFIQPMALAVRLTANITAGHLLIHLIGGATLALMSISTTTALITFTILILLTILEFAVAMIQAYVFTLLVSLYLHDNT        - Cattle
Bowhead Whale      - MNENLFAPFMAPVMVGIPITTLIIILPSILFPTPNRLINNRMISIQQWLTKLTSKQLMNTHSPKGQTWSLMLISLFLFIASTNLLGMLPHSFTPTTQLSMNVGMAIPLWAGTVFTGFRNKTKMSLAHLLPQGTPTFLIPMLVIIETISLFIQPVALAVRLTANITAGHLLMHLIGEATLALMDISLFTTLITFTILTLLTILEFAVALIQAYVFTLLVSLYLHDNT        - Bowhead Whale
Killer Whale       - MNKNLFTSFMIPVVLGIPITTLIIMFPTMLFPTPNRLTNNRVIAIQQWLTKLTSKQLMITHGLKGQTWSLMLTSLFLFIASTNLLGMLPHSFTPTTQLSMNLGMAIPLWAGTIFIGFRNKTKMSLAHLLPLGTPAFLIPMLVTIETISLFIQPLALAVRLTANITAGHLLLHLIGSATLALMGINLPTALITFIILTLLVILEFAVALIQAYVFTLLVSLYLQDNT        - Killer Whale
Egyptian Rousette  - MNENLFASFITPTMMGLPVVTLIIMFPTILFPSSNRLINNRLIAIQQWILHLTAKQMMSIHNHTGQKWSLMLMSLILFIGSTNLLGLLPHSFTPTTQLSMNLGMAIPLWAGTVALGFRHKTKASLAHFLPQGTPVPLIPMLIIIETISLFIQPMALAVRLTANITAGHLLIHLIGGATLALLNINMLTSFITFIILVLLTILEFAVALIQAYVFTLLVSLYLHDNT        - Egyptian Rousette Bat
European Hedgehog  - MNENLFTPFIAPTLLGIPVAILIIMFPSLLFIKHTRLFSNRIMILQQWMIKKTTKQMMSNHNPKGQTWALLLMSLMMFISSSNILGLLPHSFTPTTQLSMNLGMAIPLWAGAVIMGFRLKLKNSLAHFLPQGTPLPLIPMLIIIETISLLIQPMALAIRLTANITAGHLLIHLIGSAVLNLLAINPSVAMLTLIILLLLTILEFAVALIQAYVFTLLVSLYLHDNT        - European Hedgehog
Giant Panda        - MNENLFASFTTPMMMGVPIVVLIIIFPSILFPSPNRLINNRLATVQQWLIQLVSKHMLSIHNYKGQTWALMLMSLILFIGSTNLLGLLPHSFTPTTQLSMNLGMAIPLWAGTVVMGFRHKTKASLAHFLPQGTPLPLIPMLVIIETISLFIQPVALAVRLTANITAGHLLIHLIGGATLVLMNINPVTALITFIILILLTILELAVALIQAYVFTLLVSLYLHDNT        - Giant Panda
Wallaroo           - MNENLFATFITPTILGITTLPIIMLFPCLLLTSPKRWLPNRIQILQVWLIRLITKQMLTIHNKQGRSWALMLMSLILFIASTNLLGLLPYSFTPTTQLSMNIGMAIPLWLATVLMGFRNKPKISLAHFLPQGTPTPLVPMLIIIETISLFIQPVALAVRLTANITAGHLLIHLIGSATLALCSISVTVSTITFIILFLLTILELAVAMIQAYVFTLLVSLYLHDNS        - Wallaroo
Koala              - MNKNLFTQFITPTIMDTTMLPMIMYFPCLILSTPKHLFSNRIQTLQIWLIRLITKQMMLLHNKQGQTWTLMLMSLILFISSTNLLGLLPYSFTPTTQLSMNISMAIPLWMATVIMGLRNKPKTSLAHLLPQGTPTPLIPMLIIIETISLLIQPLALAVRLTANITAGHLLIHLITSATLALLSINMIASTMTFIIFLMLMILELTVALIQAYVFTLLVSLYLHNNS        - Koala
Australian Echidna - MNENLFASFITPTILGISILPLIMIFPCLLFSAPNRWMPNRLVALQLWLVRMVTKQMMSMHNKQGRMWTLMLITLIMFIASTNLLGLLPYTFTPTTQLSMNMGMAVPLWLGTVLMGFRNKPKSSLAHFLPQGTPTPLIPMLIIIETISLFIQPVALAVRLTANITAGHLLIHLIGSATLALSSISLTVSTITFTILFLLTILEIAVALIQAYVFTLLVSLYLHDNT        - Australian Echidna

100 million years ago:
Non-mammals:
Zebrafish          - MMTSFFDQFASPYLLGIPLILVAMLLPWLLFPAPTSRWINNRLITVQTWLTGRFTNQLMTPLNFSGHKWALLFASLMVFLITINLLGLLPYTFTPTTQLSLNMGFAVPLWLATVIIGMKNQPTIALGHLLPEGTPIPLIPALIIIETISLFIRPLALGVRLTANLTAGHLLIQLIATAVFVLLPMMPAVAILTASVLFLLTLLEVAVAMIQAYVFILLLSLYLQENI       - Zebrafish
Marbled Lungfish   - MTLSFFDQFLSPTILGIPLIMLSLILPWLLYPTSPNRWLSNRLLTLENWFIFRTTAQLMVPINQQGHKWAAILTSLMILLISINLLGLLPYTFTPTTQLSMNMGFAVPMWLATVLIGLRNQPTTSIGHLLPEXTPNLLIPALVVIETISLFIRPLALGVRLTANLTAGHLLMQLIATAVFFLASVMPTIALLTYTVLFLLTILELAVAMIQAYVFVLLLTLYLQENI       - Marbled Lungfish
Chinese Egret      - MNLSFFDQFTSPCLLGIPLILLATLFPALLLPSPNNRWITNRLSTLQLWLLHLITKQLMMPLNKAGHKWALILTSLMMFLLTINLLGLLPYTFTPTTQLSMNMALAFPLWLATLLTGLRNQPSMSLGHLLLEGTPTLLIPALIMIETTSLLIRPLALGVRLTANLTAGHLLIQLISTATTALLPILPTVSALTTLILLLLTILEVAVAMIQAYVFVLLLSLYLQENI       - Chinese Egret
Liver Fluke        - MFVSRLGVLYNLVVGFVLGGWSDYLYRMCLFFLLCCFLYLRMPYLYGLLGFGLFLIFSVIPLFLALFLGRLLDVGLFSFFSGFVPSGTPLWIAPFVCLAETLSYVVRPIVLIIRPFVNLTIGSFGGVAIGALGFKYGFGVFVFLVVLFFYEVFVALVHWFIVCNILSFSENH                                                              - Liver Fluke
Oriental Fluke     - MLSGLWFTSFLVKLSSYLKVMKIEMWYSLSLFILIFVFAIVRFPYVYGMFDYGLCLIVLIMPLFISLFFSRLFCAFGLFVSSFIPVGCPIYLAPFVCIIELISFIIRPVVLLVRPFVNISAGVYFGVFVGNLCFAINYFIFVIFFVLFVYEIFVALMHWFIVQEILKFSVDH                                                              - Oriental Fluke
Sea Squirt         - MMNLFFPFESTLMIFPIGLVMLLFGFYFFGNKILNKGMFLLIMGQFTNKFSGMFFFYFSVFFVILAMNLLGMLPFGFSMSSLLVVTFSFSVMLWISTVLRGYMINLKYNIAHLLPMGTPYFLVFMLVWIEIMSQLARPLALGIRLMANITAGHLLLHLISQGFFFMGPMGIFVLFLFSILVILEIAVSFIQPYVFGLLLSLYMNEGLGSE                        - Sea Squirt
Brown Hydra        - MSSYFDHFLVTKIFGFLFDSHLILIMSVLIXFVALNFNLVIPSRIQLFFEIIMNHFSQIIKENLGNNSQIYLLFLSTLFFYLISINLLGFFIFTLPPTTHISLTFGLSSFIWISIIIFGFFNFKSSYLSMFMPTGAPLGLSPLLVFIELASHISRPIALGMRLAANLTAGHILLAILSDFIFKMLCFSFSFFNLFPLIIIIFMIILEIGVLVIQAYVFTLLCLIYLKDSLILH - Brown Hydra
Snail              - MFSDLFSSLDGCMSIYSWSTTLILLLLFYNKTFIYSTNSSLIKSLIPLGQGNKKILPFGLFIINIFFILINMNLLGLTPFTYSMTSSLWYVSSMALIMWTLLLISGYFYSFKKSLAHLVPSGAPLPLVPFLIIIESISILIRPLTLTVRLIANISAGHIVLSLIANVLTSLNFSTMSSVLLISVGYNMFEVFVCFIQAYIFTLLLKLYSAEHPFKWSCVQHLTVN         - Snail
Honey Bee          - MKLILMMNLFEMFDPSTSNNLSMNWLFMMLPIIIFPSIFWLIQSRIMFIMKTLMNFMYNEFKVVSKSKYQSNIIIFISLMLYIMITNIFSLIPYVFTLTSHLLLNMILSLTLWFSFLIYLIYNNYIMFLSHLVPLNSPVFLMNFMVIIELISLIIRPWTLSIRLSANLISGHLILTLLGIFISNFISILPINLMIQNMLLTLEIFMSMIQSYVFSILLILYFSESN        - Honey Bee
Russian Grayling   - MMNNLFSIFDPSTNIFNLSLNWISTFIGLMFIPYSFWFMPNRYFLAWNFISSKLHNEFKTLMGTNSFHGSTFIFISLFFFILFNNLLGLFPYIFTSTSHLNLSLTLSLTLWLSFMIYGWINNTQHMFIHLIPQGTPTILMPFMVLIETISNIIRPGTLAVRLTANMIAGHLLLTLLGNSGLNMPNYLLAILIFTQILLLTLEIAVAIIQSYVITILSTLYSSEVN         - Russian Grayling
Bryozoan           - MLFDLFSCFDDCNATIPPLLVILAFVLYFNKSSQPPHPQHSHTVGELADNHRVLNTMSGRTVLVSLFVLVGYLNPMGLYPYMFSMTSHLATNLALSLPLWVAILLASSSFSGYSFLSHLQPTGAPAALSPFLCLIELVSLIIRPLTLCVRLAANLSTGHIFIALLAGSAALTIPVGVFYFAFEFAICGIQNYIFTLLPLLYLEEHP                            - Bryozoan

Comparative phylogeny:

NC_012920 Homo sapiens              Human              Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
NC_001643 Pan troglodytes           Chimp              Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Pan
NC_006853 Bos taurus                Cattle             Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Laurasiatheria; Cetartiodactyla; Ruminantia; Pecora; Bovidae; Bovinae; Bos
NC_005268 Balaena mysticetus        Bowhead Whale      Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Laurasiatheria; Cetartiodactyla; Cetacea; Mysticeti; Balaenidae; Balaena
NC_014682 Orcinus orca              Killer Whale       Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Laurasiatheria; Cetartiodactyla; Cetacea; Odontoceti; Delphinidae; Orcinus
NC_007393 Rousettus aegyptiacus     Egyptian Rousette  Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Laurasiatheria; Chiroptera; Megachiroptera; Pteropodidae; Pteropodinae; Rousettus
NC_002080 Erinaceus europaeus       European Hedgehog  Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Laurasiatheria; Insectivora; Erinaceidae; Erinaceinae; Erinaceus
NC_009492 Ailuropoda melanoleuca    Giant Panda        Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Laurasiatheria; Carnivora; Caniformia; Ursidae; Ailuropoda
NC_001794 Macropus robustus         Wallaroo           Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Metatheria; Diprotodontia; Macropodidae; Macropus
NC_008133 Phascolarctos cinereus    Koala              Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Metatheria; Diprotodontia; Phascolarctidae; Phascolarctos
NC_003321 Tachyglossus aculeatus    Australian Echidna Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Monotremata; Tachyglossidae; Tachyglossus
NC_002333 Danio rerio               Zebrafish          Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Actinopterygii; Neopterygii; Teleostei; Ostariophysi; Cypriniformes; Cyprinidae; Danio
NC_014764 Protopterus aethiopicus   Marbled Lungfish   Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Dipnoi; Lepidosireniformes; Protopteridae; Protopterus
NC_009736 Egretta eulophotes        Chinese Egret      Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Archosauria; Dinosauria; Saurischia; Theropoda; Coelurosauria; Aves; Neognathae; Ciconiiformes; Ardeidae; Egretta
NC_006403 Hyla chinensis            Chinese Toad       Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Amphibia; Batrachia; Anura; Neobatrachia; Hyloidea; Hylidae; Hylinae; Hylini; Hyla
NC_001626 Petromyzon marinus        Sea Lamprey        Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Hyperoartia; Petromyzontiformes; Petromyzontidae; Petromyzon
NC_004447 Ciona intestinalis        Sea squirt         Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Tunicata; Ascidiacea; Enterogona; Phlebobranchia; Cionidae; Ciona
NC_001912 Branchiostoma lanceolatum Amphioxus          Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Cephalochordata; Branchiostomidae; Branchiostoma. 
NC_010214 Hydra oligactis           Brown Hydra        Eukaryota; Metazoa; Cnidaria; Hydrozoa; Hydroida; Anthomedusae; Hydridae; Hydra.
NC_012616 Apostichopus japonicus    Jap. Sea Cucumber  Eukaryota; Metazoa; Echinodermata; Eleutherozoa; Echinozoa; Holothuroidea; Aspidochirotacea; Aspidochirotida; Stichopodidae; Apostichopus
NC_002546 Fasciola hepatica         Liver Fluke        Eukaryota; Metazoa; Platyhelminthes; Trematoda; Digenea; Echinostomida; Echinostomata; Echinostomatoidea; Fasciolidae; Fasciola
NC_002544 Schistosoma japonicum     Oriental Fluke     Eukaryota; Metazoa; Platyhelminthes; Trematoda; Digenea; Strigeidida; Schistosomatoidea; Schistosomatidae; Schistosoma
NC_010220 Biomphalaria tenagophila  Snail              Eukaryota; Metazoa; Mollusca; Gastropoda; Pulmonata; Basommatophora; Lymnaeoidea; Planorbidae; Biomphalaria
NC_001566 Apis mellifera ligustica  Honey Bee          Eukaryota; Metazoa; Arthropoda; Hexapoda; Insecta; Pterygota; Neoptera; Endopterygota; Hymenoptera; Apocrita; Aculeata; Apoidea; Apidae; Apis
NC_014587 Hipparchia autonoe        Russian Grayling   Eukaryota; Metazoa; Arthropoda; Hexapoda; Insecta; Pterygota; Neoptera; Endopterygota; Lepidoptera; Glossata; Ditrysia; Papilionoidea; Nymphalidae; Satyrinae; Satyrini; Satyrina; Hipparchia
NC_008192 Flustrellidra hispida     Bryozoan           Eukaryota; Metazoa; Bryozoa; Gymnolaemata; Ctenostomata; Flustrellidridae; Flustrellidra